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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Recently, research on the processing of raw functional materials with the aim of improving various physiological activities has been conducted.

New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of royal jelly RJ hydrolysates obtained from three commercial proteases. Enzyme-treated royal jelly ERJin which the RJ hydrolysates were converted into easy-to-absorb shorter chain monomers through the removal of two known allergen proteins, showed no difference in the content of Korean journal of diabetes hydroxydecenoicacid HDA or the freshness parameter and showed a significant increase in total free amino acid content.

Moreover, ERJ significantly increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase SOD and cukorbetegség diagnosztikai kezelés megelőzése könyv level of the antioxidant glutathione GSH in a dose-dependent manner.

These findings indicate that ERJ has high potential as an antioxidant agent for use in human and animal diets.

Hajdu Máté, Maren Oedven Knutsen oh. Cardiovascular complications are responsible for the majority of deaths in this disease. Myocardial dysfunction affects all cardiac chambers, thus early screening of diabetes-related cardiac complications is crucial. Tissue Doppler and speckle tracking-derived strain technics allow the early diagnosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies suggest that strict glycaemic control is the most effective therapeutic approach to prevent cardiac complications in diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidation, enzyme, hydrolysates, royal jelly Introduction Researches have been conducted to develop functional raw materials to improve physiological activity. For example, enzymatic treatments have been proven to be effective for improving the quality of certain existing raw materials by modifying their structure or redistributing their composition Lebesi and Tzia ; Liu et cukorbeteg étrendje. It has been proven that reduction in raw material particle size not only korean journal of diabetes structural characteristics, but also improves technological properties when using a raw material in food development Chen et al.

Enzymatic hydrolysates possess many biological activities as potential physiological modulators.

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They usually contain various amino acid residues, and the activities are based on amino acid composition. Recently, studies have reported their possible utility as alternative antioxidants Saiga et al.

Appreciations to Reviewers for Journal of Korean Medical Science ...

Antioxidant is a broad term defined as any substance that significantly delays or inhibits oxidation of a substrate. Antioxidant agents protect living organisms from oxidative damage, resulting in the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes Napolitano et al.

Therefore, the existence of protective agents against free radicals and other oxidants in living cells is very important.

Baek, Ji Hyun. Sungkyunkwan University Bang, Ji Hwan.

It is becoming important to identify antioxidants from natural sources by modify technique. RJ is a traditional product commonly used as a supplement to protect against diseases. Royal jelly is made by young worker bees and is the sole food for young larvae and queen bee.

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Royal jelly is composed of important compounds with biological activities, such as free amino acids, proteins, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins.

Also it contains physiologically active substances such as hydroxydecenoic acid HAD Suguru Fujiwara et al. It has been reported to have functional effects, such as activation of the autonomic nervous system, antibacterial activity, prevention and alleviation of circulatory diseases, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects Guo et al.

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However, RJ contains two proteins, one is 47 kDa and the other is 55 kDa, which are considered to be major allergens Rosmilah et al. The patients with sensitivity to RJ showed high serum IgE level.

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Therefore, many studies have been conducted to solve these problems and to make RJ easier to ingest Kim et al. In this study, RJ was converted into an easy-to-absorb shorter chain monomer using three commercial protease enzymes.

  1. Int J Mol Sci.
  2. Antioxidant Activity of Royal Jelly Hydrolysates Obtained by Enzymatic Treatment
  3. Хедрон секунду колебался, раздумывая, насколько он может доверять Джезераку. - Откуда такая уверенность.
  4. Diabetes typ 1
  5. New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly
  6. Она была рада возможности с глазу на глаз проститься с Синим Доктором. Орел поднял платформу к потолку огромного зала.

The objective of this study was to prepare ERJ hydrolysates using protease enzymes and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of ERJ on peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice.

Proteolytic enzymes, including endo-protease obtained from cultures of Bacillus licheniformis, and endo- and exo-protease obtained from cultures of Aspergilus oryzae, were purchased from Vision Biochem Co.

RJ powder was mixed with purified water at a ratio of And then the mixture was added mL of methanol, mixed using ultrasonic waves for 30 min.

Antioxidant Activity of Royal Jelly Hydrolysates Obtained by Enzymatic Treatment

The supernatant obtained by centrifugation 12, rpm, 10 min with addition of mL of methanol was filtered through a 0. Standards were prepared by diluting 17 different kinds of amino acid solutions Pickering Laboratories, Inc. The same amount of each standard solution was injected to prepare a standard curve.

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All experiments were conducted according to the manufacturer's instructions. Statistical analysis All values were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results and Discussion Confirmation of allergen protein removal and ingredient content change The water-soluble proteins of RJ have been studied in terms of their characteristics and physiological functions according to size in a total of nine fractions Tamura et al.

Echocardiographic assessment of the myocardial dysfunction in diabetes

Among them, water-soluble protein 1 molecular weight MW : 55 kDa and water-soluble protein 2 MW: 47 kDa have been reported as major proteins causing allergies Yoko et al. Korean journal of diabetes proteins 1 and 2 have been reported to stimulate the secretion of TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in macrophages in mice Šimúth et al. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether these allergen-induced proteins were removed and the level of HAD was changed by enzyme treatment.

The electrophoretic patterns of the RJ hydrolysates obtained from the enzyme treatments are shown in Fig. The enzyme treatment also resulted in an increase in the level of total free amino acids due to the decomposition of small molecules of polymer Table 1. Nevertheless, the level of HDA was not changed by the enzyme treatment Table 1.

Therefore, with ERJ, there is no need to worry about the risk of allergies when ingested, and the enzymatic processing of RJ is expected to improve the absorption rate.

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